How Does Split AC Work

A split air conditioner (split AC) is a popular cooling system used in homes and offices. It consists of two main components: an indoor unit and an outdoor unit. Here’s how a split AC system works:

How Does Split AC Work

1. Indoor Unit:

The indoor unit of a split AC is installed inside the room you want to cool. It contains several key components:

  • Evaporator Coil: This coil contains a cold refrigerant, which evaporates as warm indoor air is blown over it by a fan.
  • Blower Fan: The indoor unit has a blower fan that circulates the indoor air over the evaporator coil. This air is cooled as it passes over the cold coil.
  • Air Filter: An air filter is typically present to trap dust, allergens, and particles, improving indoor air quality.
  • Control Panel: The indoor unit may have a control panel with settings to adjust temperature, fan speed, and mode.

2. Outdoor Unit:

The outdoor unit of the split AC is installed outside the building. It contains these key components:

  • Compressor: The compressor is the heart of the AC system. It pressurizes and circulates the refrigerant between the indoor and outdoor units. It plays a crucial role in cooling the refrigerant and transferring heat from the indoor air to the outdoor air.
  • Condenser Coil: The hot, high-pressure refrigerant gas from the compressor flows to the outdoor unit’s condenser coil. Here, it releases heat to the outside air, causing the refrigerant to condense and become a high-pressure liquid.
  • Fan: An outdoor fan blows air over the condenser coil to help dissipate the heat from the refrigerant into the outdoor atmosphere.
  • Expansion Valve: After releasing heat in the outdoor unit, the high-pressure liquid refrigerant flows back to the indoor unit through a copper tube. Before reaching the evaporator coil in the indoor unit, it passes through an expansion valve or metering device, where its pressure is reduced, causing it to expand and become a low-pressure, low-temperature gas.

3. The Cooling Process:

The cooling process begins when you set the desired temperature on the indoor unit’s control panel. Here’s how the split AC system cools the room:

  • The indoor unit’s blower fan circulates warm indoor air over the cold evaporator coil. The refrigerant in the coil absorbs heat from the indoor air, cooling it down.
  • The cooled air is then blown back into the room, lowering the indoor temperature and providing comfort.
  • The heat absorbed by the refrigerant in the indoor unit is carried to the outdoor unit through the refrigerant lines.
  • In the outdoor unit, the compressor pressurizes the refrigerant, causing it to release heat as it passes through the condenser coil.
  • The outdoor fan helps dissipate this heat into the outside air.
  • The refrigerant, now in liquid form, returns to the indoor unit to repeat the cooling cycle.

This continuous cycle of refrigerant circulation, heat exchange, and air circulation effectively cools the indoor space. The split AC system allows for efficient and precise cooling, with separate controls for different indoor units in multi-split systems, making it a versatile and popular choice for cooling larger areas or multiple rooms.

How Does Split AC Work


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