Born: 7 November 1858, Habibganj District, (Present-day Bangladesh)
Death: 20 May 1932, Kolkata, West Bengal
Field of work: freedom fighter, teacher, journalist, writer
Bipin Chandra Pal was an Indian revolutionary, teacher, journalist, and writer. Pal is one of the great personalities who played a major role in laying the foundation of India’s independence movement. He was part of the famous Lal-Bal-Pal (Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Bipin Chandra Pal) trio.
This trio shook the cradles of English rule with its sharp attack. Apart from being a nationalist leader, Vipinchandra Pal was also a teacher, journalist, writer, and great speaker. He is also considered the father of revolutionary ideas in India.
He made a major contribution to the movement against the British rule against the partition of Bengal in 1905, which got the support of the public at large. This trio of Lal-Bal-Pal felt that the economy of the country was deteriorating due to foreign products and the work of the people was also being snatched away.
Famous for his ‘hot’ views, Pal promoted the indigenous movement and blamed British rule by boycotting finished products in Britain, avoiding Manchester-made clothing and strikes in industrial and commercial establishments.
The Garam Dal played an important role in the early years of the national movement as it gave a new direction to the movement and it increased awareness among the people. Bipin Chandra Pal played an important role in creating awareness among the general public during the national movement.
They believed that Swaraj is not going to get the ‘soft party’ weapon ‘Prayer-Petition’, but that Swaraj will have to attack foreign dictates. That is why he is called the ‘father of revolutionary ideas’ in the freedom movement.
Bipin Chandra Pal was born on 7 November 1858 in Habibganj district of undivided India (now in Bangladesh) to a thriving home in a village called Poil. His father Ramchandra Pal was a Zoroastrian scholar and small zamindar.
He studied at the Church Mission Society College (now St. Paul’s Cathedral Mission College) and later taught. This college was affiliated with the University of Calcutta.
At a very young age, Bipin joined the Brahmo Samaj and like other members of the society, he also started opposing social evils and orthodox traditions. He raised his voice against discrimination based on caste at a very young age and married an upper-caste widow, after which he had to break away from his family. Pal was firm to the tune and therefore did not compromise despite family and social pressures.
Congress Party and their Role in the Freedom Movement
In 1886, he joined the Congress Party. In the Madras Session of Congress in 1887, he demanded immediate removal of the ‘Arms Act’ implemented by the British Government because the Act was discriminatory. He was part of the famous Lal-Bal-Pal (Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Bipin Chandra Pal) trio.
All three fueled revolutionary sentiments and also participated in revolutionary activities themselves. Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh promoted a nationalism whose ideals were complete Swaraj, Swadeshi, a boycott of foreign goods, and national education.
Bipin Chandra Pal carried forward the national movement through programs like Swadeshi, a boycott of foreign goods, and national education. They believed that doing so would remove poverty and unemployment.
He had no faith in English rule and believed that foreign powers could not be defeated with weapons like pleading and non-cooperation. That is why he had an ideological difference with Gandhiji. In the last few years of his life, he split from Congress.
Pal also founded the revolutionary magazine ‘Bande Mataram’. After Tilak’s arrest and the Swadeshi movement, he went to England after the oppressive policy of the British. Going there, he joined the ‘India House’ (which was founded by Shyamji Krishna Varma) of the revolutionary Vidhara stream and started the publication of the magazine ‘Swaraj’.
When the revolutionary Madan Lal Dhingra killed Curzon Wylie in 1909, the publication of ‘Swaraj’ was stopped and he faced a lot of problems in London. After this incident, Bipin Chandra Pal distanced himself from the radical ideology.
In the Vande Mataram treason case, he refused to testify against Aurobindo Ghosh, which led to a sentence of 6 months.
He has also criticized leaders like Mahatma Gandhi on many occasions and opposed his views. Criticizing Gandhiji in 1921, he said, “AAP’s ideas are not logical but based on magic”.
Compositions and Editing
Along with being a revolutionary, Bipin was also a skilled writer and editor. He also composed many compositions and edited many magazines and magazines.
- Indian Nationalism
- Nasty and Empire
- Swaraj and the present situation
- The basis of reform
- The soul of India
- The new spirit
- Studies in Hinduism
- Queen Victoria – Biography
He worked for a long time as a writer and journalist.
- Viewer (1880)
- Bengal Public Opinion (1882)
- Lahore Tribune (1887)
- The New India (1892)
- The Independent, India (1901)
- Bandemataram (1906, 1907)
- Swaraj (1908 –1911)
- The Hindu Review (1913)
- The Democrat (1919, 1920)
- Bengali (1924, 1925)
On 20 May 1932, this great revolutionary died in Kolkata. He broke away from politics around 1922 and remained aloof until his death.
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